An end effector corresponds to the hand and wrist of an industrial Robot. In many
Robot applications actual handling does not occur therefore the term hand is
inappropriate. There is no one universal end effector which will accommodate all
applications, consequently it is normal for the Robot to be supplied without an end
effector as standard equipment. The end effector is usually specified by the user and
can be selected from a range of standard designs or can be purpose built to individual
Pitch, Roll and Yaw
It is common though not essential for end effectors to provide three degrees of
movement and to offer three degrees of freedom to compliment the three already
present on the Robot. The three degrees of movement are termed pitch roll and yaw,
Pitch - is angular rotation in the vertical plane, it can be likened to waving
with the fingers pointing up and down.
Roll - is angular movement about the axis of the arm, it can be likened to
turning a door knob in either a clockwise or anti-clockwise direction.
Yaw - is angular rotation in the horizontal plane, it can be demonstrated by
allowing the hand to remain horizontal whilst moving the fingers to the left or right.
These end effector movements are normally provided by three separate revolute joints
rather than by a multi purpose joint such as a ball and socket.