End Effectors

An end effector corresponds to the hand and wrist of an industrial Robot. In many Robot applications actual handling does not occur therefore the term hand is inappropriate. There is no one universal end effector which will accommodate all applications, consequently it is normal for the Robot to be supplied without an end effector as standard equipment. The end effector is usually specified by the user and can be selected from a range of standard designs or can be purpose built to individual requirements.

Pitch, Roll and Yaw

It is common though not essential for end effectors to provide three degrees of movement and to offer three degrees of freedom to compliment the three already present on the Robot. The three degrees of movement are termed pitch roll and yaw,

Pitch - is angular rotation in the vertical plane, it can be likened to waving with the fingers pointing up and down.

Roll - is angular movement about the axis of the arm, it can be likened to turning a door knob in either a clockwise or anti-clockwise direction.

Yaw - is angular rotation in the horizontal plane, it can be demonstrated by allowing the hand to remain horizontal whilst moving the fingers to the left or right.

These end effector movements are normally provided by three separate revolute joints rather than by a multi purpose joint such as a ball and socket.